Still Loaded With Antibodies 1 Year Later After Covid 19 Infection

Labcorp Antibodies Test Results Positive
SEE OTHER TEST RESULTS BELOW
Why Is Natural Immunity Still Being Ignored By The Corrupt Government & Corporate Media?

Blood test results from Labcorp show an unvaccinated family of four people still have antibodies 1 year later after infection.  Family of people with ages ranging from 12-48 still are loaded with antibodies.  

Can this family get a vaccine mandate exemption?


Here is the language used by the criminals running the CDC.  All eligible people should be vaccinated, including unvaccinated people who have previously been infected and have detectable antibodies.

Numerous immunologic studies (NO STUDIES LINKED?) have consistently shown that vaccination of individuals who were previously infected enhances their immune response, and growing epidemiologic evidence indicates that vaccination following infection further reduces the risk of subsequent infection, including in the setting of increased circulation of more infectious variants.


Risk of an MIS-like illness or the known risks of COVID-19 vaccination such as the rare risk of myocarditis following COVID-19 vaccination for people who meet the following criteria:

  1. Clinical recovery has been achieved, including return to normal cardiac function;
  2. It has been ≥90 days since their diagnosis of MIS-C;
  3. They are in an area of high or substantial community transmission of SARS-CoV-2, or otherwise have an increased risk for SARS-CoV-2 exposure and transmission; and
  4. Onset of MIS-C occurred before any COVID-19 vaccination.
People diagnosed with MIS-C or MIS-A after COVID-19 vaccination

In the rare instance of a person developing MIS-C, MIS-A, or a similar clinical illness after receipt of a COVID-19 vaccine, referral to a specialist in infectious diseases, rheumatology, or cardiology should be considered. Because MIS-C and MIS-A are conditions known to occur with SARS-CoV-2 infection, these individuals should be assessed for laboratory evidence of current or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection. Healthcare and public health professionals should also consider requesting a consultation from the Clinical Immunization Safety Assessment COVIDvax project. In addition, all illnesses consistent with MIS-C or MIS-A occurring in persons who received any COVID-19 vaccine should be reported to VAERS.

FDA today: 42% of children 5-11 have natural immunity

42% of children 5-11 have natural immunity

Labcorp Antibodies Test Results Positive

Labcorp Antibodies Test Results Positive

Labcorp Antibodies Test Results Positive

Dan Bongino's Goes On Strike Over Cumulus Media's Vaccine Mandate


Dan Bongino is taking a break from his radio show and is off the air for at least the rest of this week in the midst of a public feud over the Vaccine mandate imposed by Cumulus Media, the radio giant that distributes his show. 

Several affiliates that play The Dan Bongino Show told the radio broadcasting industry trade magazine Radio Ink that Bongino’s program has been put on “best of” mode for the rest of this week.

The show, which occupies the noon to 3 p.m. time slot on Cumulus Media’s influential radio network Westwood One, also did not air on Tuesday, according to Radio Ink.

Zachary Petrizzo, an investigative reporter with Salon, tweeted Wednesday morning that he received information Bongino is currently on “vacation” from his radio hosting duties with Cumulus. 

Bongino’s departure from the air follows a public clash over the Covid-19 vaccine mandate imposed by Cumulus Media CEO Mary Berner in September. Several of the company’s radio hosts have already quit or been fired over the rule, which was geared toward an October 11 return to the office. Bongino himself has been fully vaccinated on the advice of his doctors as he is battling Hodgkin’s lymphoma, his team said. However he believes vaccine mandates are “unethical” and “immoral.” He threatened to quit his job earlier this month if Cumulus Media didn’t shift on the mandate. 

“Cumulus is going to have to make a decision with me—if they want to continue this partnership or they don’t,” Bongino told listeners in a recent program. “It’s really unfortunate that people with a lower profile than me, who don’t have 300-plus stations, have been summarily either shown the door or been put in really untenable circumstances because they simply want to make a medical decision by themselves.”

Governor of New Jersey Phil Murphy Crooked Campaign Lies


Project Veritas exposes Phil Murphy’s crooked campaign. A must watch.

Phil Murphy Campaign


Associated Press Fake Story & Lies About Project Veritas


DEFAMATION BY IMPLICATION: The Associated Press 'Strawmans' Project Veritas


RETRACTO 349: Daily Beast's Will Sommer RETRACTS headline ‘Judge Rules Veritas is Political Spying’

Dr. Pierre Kory Treated 200 Members of Congress with Ivermectin

 
Dr. Pierre Kory treated 200 members of Congress with Ivermectin

Don't Trust The Vaccine Hypocrisy of Biden & Democrats

 
Compilation of public statements by Democratic leaders. It's science ... not politics!




What's is REALLY in the Coivd 19 Vaccines

 
Dr. Ardis and Dr. Carrie Madej learn from Karen Kingston, what's REALLY in the C19 vaccines!

Self-assembly nanotechnology webs called Teslaphoresis of Carbon Nanotubes

what is in the vaccines


Israeli Physicians, Scientists Advise FDA of ‘Severe Concerns’ Regarding Reliability and Legality of Official Israeli COVID Vaccine Data

Israel doctors to FDA

An independent Israeli group of physicians, lawyers, scientists, and researchers called the Professional Ethics Front today advised the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding the upcoming FDA discussion on administering COVID-19 vaccines to children aged 5-11, expressing “severe concerns” regarding the reliability and legality of official Israeli COVID vaccine data.

“We are aware that the state of Israel is perceived as ‘the world laboratory’ regarding the safety and efficacy of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, as reflected by statements made by Dr. Albert Bourla, Dr. Anthony Fauci, and other senior figures in leading health authorities throughout the world,” the letter reads. “It is therefore our understanding that the data and information coming from Israel play a crucial role in critical decision-making processes in regards to COVID-19 vaccination policies. We thus see it of utmost importance to convey a message of warning and raise our major concerns regarding potential flaws in the reliability of the Israeli data with respect to the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, as well as many significant legal and ethical violations that accompany the data collection processes.”

The letter elaborates: “We believe that the significant failures underlying the Israeli database, which have been brought to our attention by numerous testimonies, impair its reliability and legality to such an extent that it should not be used for making any critical decisions regarding the COVID-19 vaccines.”

America’s Frontline Doctors (AFLDS) spoke to Haifa and Reichman Universities Health and Risk Communication lecturer Dr. Yaffa Shir Raz, one of the letter’s authors, about their findings and conclusions:


This document briefly outlines the main failures that lead to this unfortunate, albeit inevitable, conclusion,” the notice reads. “We emphasize that we can expand and clarify further, as well as provide references, in relation to each of the failures described below:

“1. Lack of a Public and Transparent Adverse Events Reporting System: The first prerequisite for granting a permit for use of any new medicinal preparation is the setup of adverse events (AEs) collection systems that would allow appropriate management of risks and generation of alarm signals. All the more so when it concerns a mass vaccination campaign of a first-in-human use of an experimental preparation to the citizens of an entire country, which serves as a global model. Despite the advanced technological systems available to the Israeli HMOs, and contrary to common standards in Western countries, there exists no proper and transparent AEs reporting system in Israel, such as the US VAERS system, that is accessible to the public, and thus no appropriate tracking of AEs occurring after the administration of the COVID-19 vaccine.

“Healthcare professionals or citizens in Israel, who wish to submit reports of AEs following vaccination, are unable to do so. As such, there is no possibility for either of these populations to also search through the data, rendering impossible the examination of the reported AEs by other citizens, physicians and independent researchers. Instead, there is only an online AEs reporting form available on the MOH’s website. This form, however, was for many months not useful, since it did not allow the inclusion of personal contact information. The free text field intended to describe the AEs comprised a limited number of characters and the symptoms list available to choose from was limited as well and included only mild AEs terms.

“A petition to the Israeli Supreme Court of Justice has led the Ministry of Health (MOH) to implement the above-mentioned necessary improvements to the form. Unfortunately, the modification of the form was made very late, after the majority of the adult population had already been vaccinated. Furthermore, since the report is not publicized in a transparent manner, the MOH is the only recipient and thus the sole owner of the data and the decision-making authority on the utilization and distribution of it.

“Moreover, no tracking and monitoring of even the most sensitive populations, such as pregnant women and the elderly, is taking place. For example, as part of the ‘National Senior Population Protection from the COVID-19 Program’ in Israel, a reporting system was activated in April 2020, which presented detailed reports almost daily on COVID-19 eruptions, on hospitalizations and on mortality in nursing homes. However, on December 29th, 2020, the very day the vaccination campaign commenced in nursing homes, the publication of these reports was abruptly discontinued, and has never been resumed since.

“2. Severe Impairments in Healthcare Professionals’ Adverse Events Reporting System: We reveal that physicians and medical teams in Israel encounter great obstacles when attempting to report AEs following Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccination to the MOH. We have testimonies of physicians, who attest to the complexity of filling the AEs reports to the MOH, claiming that reporting is almost impractical in the incredibly stressful working conditions of medical teams in Israel during this period. As a result of these tremendous difficulties, there is an immense underreporting of AEs by healthcare professionals in Israel, and AEs are only rarely reported in exceptional cases. The physicians’ testimonies that we have obtained also show that reported AEs are not openly publicized, or made available to the healthcare professionals themselves.

“Even more disturbing is the fact that the few reports, which the Israeli MOH does publicize about the AEs observed after receiving the Pfizer-BIONtech COVID-19 vaccine, are not consistent with the testimonies of physicians regarding severe adverse events (SAEs) that they themselves have reported to the MOH. Thus, for example, in a discussion before the Advisory Committee of the FDA on September 17th, 2021, the head of the Israeli Health Services, Dr. Alroy-Preis, claimed that only one case of myocarditis was observed after the 3rd vaccine dose out of three million people who received the 3rd vaccine dose in Israel. This claim does not reconcile with research findings from all over the world, including findings from Israel, that were published in the medical literature, according to which the rate of myocarditis observed after receiving the Pfizer-BioNtech COVID-19 vaccine stands at 1:3,000-6,000. The claim of Dr. Alroy-Preis also stands in contrast to reports given by a handful of brave Israeli doctors about cases of myocarditis and other SAEs observed in close proximity to the Pfizer-BioNtech COVID-19 vaccine.

“One of these physicians, Dr. Yoav Yehezkelli, who was among the founders of the Israeli Outbreak Management Team, wrote on his Facebook page that he personally treated in his clinic a 17-year-old boy, who suffered from myocarditis several days after the 3rd vaccine dose, and he knows of two additional cases among the boy’s classmates. Dr. Yoav Yehezkelli added that he reported the myocarditis case that he treated (and additional SAEs cases) to the MOH through the online reporting system, as well as via personal reports to MOH officials, but his reports were quickly dismissed as having no link to the vaccine, without thorough examination of the cases. Dr. Yehezkelli also mentioned that he encountered other patients in his clinic, who were hospitalized after suffering from AEs in close proximity to receiving Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines, and the hospital supposedly failed to report said AEs to the MOH. We have affidavits from nine other physicians, who have also treated cases of myocarditis or know of such cases, but have abandoned their attempts at reporting to the MOH having tackled immense difficulty or, alternatively, reported to the MOH and did not get any response. It is statistically improbable that a small cohort of physicians should witness these many COVID-19 vaccine injuries if Dr. Alroy-Preis’s claim was accurate.

“3. Data Distortion: Recently, two serious incidents in which data presented by the MOH was distorted have been revealed.

“The first one was the deletion of thousands of citizens’ responses to a post by the MOH. In response to an MOH post that read ‘Let’s talk about the adverse events’, and claimed that the vaccine is completely safe and that SAEs are extremely rare, tens of thousands of responses from the public were posted, with many reporting AEs, including SAEs, which they suffered after the vaccine. But instead of examining the responses and addressing them, about half of them were deleted.

“The second event occurred about two weeks ago. Based on MOH dashboard data, an analysis conducted by members of the Israeli Public Emergency Council for the Corona Crisis (PECC) demonstrated that the Pfizer-BioNtech COVID-19 3rd vaccine dose effectiveness is much lower than that claimed in the New England journal of Medicine study presented by Dr. Sharon Alroy-Preis to the FDA panel on September 17th, 2021. Within 24 hours of the release of the PECC analysis, the relevant dashboard data history was completely re-written. The PECC released screenshots of both the original and “rectified” data.

“4. Legal and Ethical Violations in Data Collection Processes: Not only is the data coming from Israel regarding the safety and efficacy of the PfizerBioNtech COVID-19 vaccine apparently unreliable, but also the collection method is controversial, and claimed to be neither legal nor ethical. The Pfizer-BioNtech COVID-19 vaccines are administered to the Israeli population without their informed consent, which is required by the GCP chapter of IHC-6 and carried out in other countries. This is a clear violation of the Nuremberg Code Rules, the Patient’s Bill of Rights, and the Israeli MOH directives for clinical trials on humans. Moreover, the Israeli citizens are under tremendous pressure to get vaccinated, almost to the point of coercion.

“Should the ‘Outbreak Management Team’ decide on a 3rd dose of the vaccine to the immunocompromised patients, it is not clear how many we can vaccinate, and it requires approval of the Helsinki committee (medical trial approval committee) and Pfizer’s approval. We are committed to Pfizer, to vaccinate only by the vaccination regimen established by them”. This is a statement made by Prof. Hezi Levi, former CEO of the Israeli MOH on July 5th, 2021. The evident conclusion is that the 3rd vaccine dose operation is an experiment requiring approval of the Helsinki Committee in charge of approving human medical experiments in Israel. Such an approval has never been issued. Moreover, the 3rd vaccine dose operation refers only to the immunocompromised population, and thus is even more unethical in healthy individuals, especially in young healthy individuals, shown to be at a higher risk for myocarditis.

“We are deeply concerned with the failure of the Vaccine Safety Committee (VSC) to fulfill its designated role. The VSC is responsible in Israel for vaccine safety and the official arm designated to monitor and collect safety data. It has not issued a single position paper on its behalf or raised a single red flag to raise wareness/bring attention to SAE cases and has never gathered in full assembly. Additionally, one of the public representative, who is a pediatrician (allergist, immunologist), never knew that he was appointed and did not attend any of the meetings, even when they did take place.”

The Israeli Professional Ethics Front concludes its notice to the FDA: “In accordance with the accepted perception established after World War II, the findings of experiments obtained in illegal and immoral ways should not be relied upon. We believe that the same rules should apply to the findings of the current experiment in Israel, since these findings were obtained through significant legal and ethical infringements. Our conclusion is further reinforced by the significant doubts about the reliability of the data reported by Israel, as detailed above, and the consequent major concern that their use might be misleading and thus disrupt the decision-making processes pertaining to the Pfizer-BioNtech COVID-19 vaccines.

“In the Book of Leviticus, it is said ‘Do not stand idly by while your neighbor’s blood is shed.’ In the spirit of those words, we implore the committee to take into consideration our urgent warnings and adopt utmost precaution when referring to the Israeli data concerning the safety and efficacy of the Pfizer-BioNtech COVID-19 vaccines.”

Doctor With Natural Immunity Fired For Fefusing Vaccine & Using Ivermectin

St. Louis ICU physician - who fought the COVID-19 pandemic on the front lines for 18 months - is out of a job after refusing to get the COVID-19 vaccine.

A local ICU physician – who fought the Covid pandemic on the front lines for 18 months – is out of a job after refusing to get the vaccine.

Dr. Mollie James said she was employed at two health systems in the Midwest, including in St. Louis, for much of the pandemic. She was also splitting her time between local hospitals and one in New York. 

James has worked as a trauma and acute care surgeon for 11 years, four of which were spent in St. Louis. 

“When the pandemic hit I just felt a calling to go to New York when they called for volunteers,” she said. “So I went there in April of 2020 and I liked being in the midst of it. My purpose for going was to help them out, but also to see what they were doing in real time and what was the most effective for patients so I could bring that back to the community.” 

For most of the last year and a half, James said she traveled between New York and St. Louis, working with critical ICU patients infected with COVID-19 in multiple hospitals. 

“I was scared, so I have a lot of empathy for the people who live in fear, because we didn’t know,” she said. “About that time nurses were dying. Doctors were dying. And so I didn’t know what we were getting into.” 

James said she tested positive for Covid in March of 2020, about a month before volunteering to go to New York. Still, she said she was nervous.  “We had freezer trucks serving as morgues outside my hospital so it was a very real reminder to wear all of the personal protective gear,” she said. 

During her time treating patients at the height of the pandemic, James said one of the first big improvements in treatment she witnessed was the addition of steroids and blood thinners to treatment protocols. 

In December of 2020, James said the Senate testimony of Dr. Pierre Kory, a fellow ICU physician, caught her eye. 

“He started talking about Ivermectin,” she said. “At the time, I wasn’t familiar with that medication, so I started looking into it and the dosing protocols and the side effects and the downsides to it. We started slowly using it in a few patients, then the pandemic numbers went down and I didn’t really see a big difference at that time.” 

When a surge of Covid cases hit southwest Missouri, James said she started doing additional research on the drug and the concept of early outpatient treatment. 

“There’s an entire protocol and Ivermectin is a key part of it.  We use blood thinners and different vitamins along with a stronger steroids than most people use, called Methylprednisolone. We combine that with Ivermectin and that combination seems to be extremely effective.” 

“I had two patient successes at the hospital that was offering it and they pulled it off the shelf a week later,” James said. “I was told it wasn’t approved by the COVID committee so doctors who were not involved in the patient’s care, my patient’s care, were making decisions about what I could use.” 

Dr. Clay Dunagan, the head of the St. Louis Metropolitan Pandemic Task Force, looked into James’ claims but said there are better treatment options available.  “It’s conceivable that Ivermectin has some impact early in the disease but it’s not really something we should be using. We have other drugs that are more effective,” he said. 

Dunagan said early data shows Ivermectin doesn’t make much of a difference and he believes Remdesivir, an anti-viral drug, along with other steroids benefit patients more. 

James said the decision should be between a patient and their doctor. 

“When I was able to properly dose and use Ivermectin in an ICU patient, I saw the fastest turnaround of any patient out of probably a couple thousand that I’ve treated,” James said. 

“When you have administrators telling physicians what medications they can prescribe, or how to counsel patients regarding interventions or telling them not to do something they believe is in the patient’s best interest, I think doctors have an obligation to leave those situations.” 

Because James recovered from COVID-19, she believes her natural immunity outweighs any medical need for a vaccine. She said she doesn’t actively encourage her patients to get vaccinated, but did add she believes it’s a decision that should ultimately be left up to a patient and their doctor. 

James admits her position on the use of Ivermectin and vaccination status places her in the minority of healthcare workers. Still, she said she’s speaking out based on the tragedy she’s witnessed firsthand.

“I think there are a lot of people living in fear, they’ve been sold fear for a long time. They don’t need to be afraid, they just need to be informed,” James said. “They need to arm themselves with the knowledge and potentially the medications so they know what to do and get back to life.” 

James is in private practice now, seeing patients virtually from across the country. She said she will prescribe several medications, including Ivermectin, to patients who have tested positive. 

“Everyone is a candidate for early treatment.  I believe its 85 percent effective in keeping people out of the hospital.”

She adds she’s run into roadblocks at pharmacies, with pharmacists unwilling to fill prescriptions for Ivermectin. Insurance companies don’t cover it either, leaving patients to pay out-of-pocket.

Attorney General Asked If Fauci Will Be Investigated For Lying To Congress


Rep. Andy Biggs (R-AZ) asked Attorney General Merrick Garland during a House Judiciary Committee hearing on Thursday if they would investigate Dr. Fauci for potentially lying to Congress.

Florida Governor Ron DeSantis To Ban Vaccine Mandates


DeSantis calls special session to ban Vaccine mandates

Vaccine Interferes With Your Body’s Innate Immune System After Infection

natural immune system

The British government admitted today, in its newest vaccine surveillance report, that:

“N antibody levels appear to be lower in people who acquire infection following two doses of vaccination.”

What’s this mean? Several things, all bad. We know the vaccines do not stop infection or transmission of the virus (in fact, the report shows elsewhere that vaccinated adults are now being infected at much HIGHER rates than the unvaccinated).

What the British are saying is they are now finding the vaccine interferes with your body’s innate ability after infection to produce antibodies against not just the spike protein but other pieces of the virus. Specifically, vaccinated people don’t seem to be producing antibodies to the nucleocapsid protein, the shell of the virus, which are a crucial part of the response in unvaccinated people.

This means vaccinated people will be far more vulnerable to mutations in the spike protein EVEN AFTER THEY HAVE BEEN INFECTED AND RECOVERED ONCE (or more than once, probably).

It also means the virus is likely to select for mutations that go in exactly that direction, because those will essentially give it an enormous vulnerable population to infect. And it probably is still more evidence the vaccines may interfere with the development of robust long-term immunity post-infection.

Aside from that, everything is fine.

UK Covid Vaccine Surveillance Report

How To Pre Order "Truth Social" iPhone App Before It Launches

Truth Social Pre-Order

Trump announces new TRUTH social network and media group to fight ‘tyranny of Big Tech’

TRUTH Social is America’s “Big Tent” social media platform that encourages an open, free, and honest global conversation without discriminating against political ideology.

Truth Social Screen Shots

Shares of Trump-linked SPAC close up 350% following news of social media deal. The stock of SPAC company Digital World Acquisition Corp. skyrocketed on extremely heavy trading volume after news of a merger that would launch former President Donald Trump’s planned social media platform.  

Follow the stock on Reddit $DWAC

Trump Media & Technology Group and Digital World Acquisition Corp. (NASDAQ: DWAC) have entered into a definitive merger agreement, providing for a business combination that will result in Trump Media & Technology Group becoming a publicly listed company, subject to regulatory and stockholder approval.  The transaction values Trump Media & Technology Group at an initial enterprise value of $875 Million, with a potential additional earnout of $825 Million in additional shares (at the valuation they are granted) for a cumulative valuation of up to $1.7 Billion depending on the performance of the stock price post-business combination. Trump Media & Technology Group’s growth plans initially will be funded by DWAC’s cash in trust of $293 Million (assuming no redemptions).

Trump Media & Technology Group's mission is to create a rival to the liberal media consortium and fight back against the "Big Tech” companies of Silicon Valley, which have used their unilateral power to silence opposing voices in America.

Trump Media & Technology Group (“TMTG”) will soon be launching a social network, named "TRUTH Social."  TRUTH Social is now available for Pre-Order in the Apple App store.  TRUTH Social plans to begin its Beta Launch for invited guests in November 2021.  A nationwide rollout is expected in the first quarter of 2022.  Those who are interested in joining TRUTH Social may now visit Truthsocial.com to sign up for the invite list.  

President Donald J. Trump, the Chairman of TMTG, stated, “I created TRUTH Social and TMTG to stand up to the tyranny of Big Tech. We live in a world where the Taliban has a huge presence on Twitter, yet your favorite American President has been silenced. This is unacceptable. I am excited to send out my first TRUTH on TRUTH Social very soon. TMTG was founded with a mission to give a voice to all. I'm excited to soon begin sharing my thoughts on TRUTH Social and to fight back against Big Tech. Everyone asks me why doesn’t someone stand up to Big Tech? Well, we will be soon!”

Patrick F. Orlando, Chairman/CEO of DWAC, stated, "Digital World was formed to create public shareholder value and we believe that TMTG is one of the most promising business combination partners to fulfill that purpose.  DWAC currently has $293 Million in trust, assuming minimal redemptions, which can fuel TMTG’s scale up, including to provide world class leading technology services to build strong and secure social networks and diverse media offerings. Given the total addressable market and President Trump’s large following, we believe the TMTG opportunity has the potential to create significant shareholder value.”

Additionally, TMTG intends to launch a subscription video on demand service (TMTG+). TMTG+ will feature 'non-woke' entertainment programming, news, podcasts, and more.  TMTG has named Scott St. John as the leader of TMTG+ Corporate Operations.  Scott St. John is the Executive Producer of “Deal or No Deal’ and “America’s Got Talent” and has produced over 1,000 hours of Network and Cable TV.

Please visit TMTG’s corporate website at www.tmtgcorp.com for a Company Overview, and a video tour of TRUTH Social. 

NIH States EcoHealth Alliance Violated Terms and Conditions of NIH Grant AI110964

 


This is Fauci throwing Peter Daszak under the bus, in case that is not clear to you.  I predict that this is going to get really ugly now.

- Fauci funded gain-of-function research
- Wuhan lab was doing GOF research
- COVID came out of Wuhan lab
- CCP covered it up 
- Fauci lied to congress

Fauci committed perjury. 

“Dr Death” must face a war crimes tribunal immediately. NIH corrects untruthful assertions by NIH Director Collins and NIAID Director Fauci that NIH had not funded gain-of-function research in Wuhan.

NIH states that EcoHealth Alliance violated Terms and Conditions of NIH grant AI110964.

1,300 COVID vaccine-related injury claims are now pending before an obscure government tribunal

tribunal vs court
If you want to follow these cases and others please subscribe to this Subreddit "Tribunals" (Just Banned) 

Federal tribunals in the United States are those tribunals established by the federal government of the United States for the purpose of resolving disputes involving or arising under federal laws, including questions about the constitutionality of such laws.

Tribunals are often confused with courts. Tribunals are a part of the administrative system whereas courts, in general, are the creation of the judiciary which is entirely a separate organ. Both the courts and tribunals operate independently of each other. Although their objectives are the same yet there are major differences that establish them as separate bodies.

Tribunals are established under administrative law, which is an offshoot of decentralization of government authorities. Decentralization has resulted in the increased number of departments that have maximized the responsibility of government. Hence, these departments are given the authority to look after their disputes independently without any interference of courts except when the decisions are challenged in their legality.

Just like any court, a tribunal has a permanent establishment. There’s a bench of adjudicators who are responsible to pronounce a just and fair decision in favor of the aggrieved party. As compared to a court, the proceedings of a tribunal are less formal and speedy. The courts are expected to be rigid in their functions because they’re directed to do so as per the rules and code of conduct. Their performance is reported to the higher courts that initiate misconduct proceedings in absence of obedience to proper conduct. In tribunals, the adjudicators are selected from the organization or the department itself. The department makes its own sets of rules and they’re relatively flexible and informal.

The tribunal decisions are binding upon the parties. However, they’re appealable or challengeable in the court, provided the law under which the tribunal is established provides for the opportunity of appeal to the higher courts.

Reuters Story

As the Biden administration puts the final touches on an emergency COVID-19 vaccine mandate for companies with 100 or more employees, a crucial piece seems to be missing for the unlucky few who experience serious side effects: meaningful legal recourse.

More than 1,300 COVID vaccine-related injury claims are now pending before an obscure government tribunal, which to date has decided only two such cases, one involving swelling of the tongue and throat following the jab, the other alleging long-lasting, severe shoulder pain.

In both instances, the government, which requires claimants to prove their injuries are “the direct result” of a COVID-19 vaccine, denied compensation.

It’s a steep burden of proof. Lawyers tell me the vaccine is so new that there’s virtually no definitive research on injury causation to cite.  THIS IS A BLATANT LIE BY REUTERS. 

All you have to do is look at the Vaers database and see these stories about side effects

Indeed, the overwhelming majority of all litigants under what's known as the Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program have not succeeded. According to program data, 29 claims have been paid for injuries stemming from other vaccines since the tribunal’s inception in 2010. (Ten additional claims won approval but no compensation.) The other 455 claims – 92% – were denied or otherwise deemed ineligible for review.

For those who prevailed, the median award was $5,677, according to my calculations, spanning from a low of $31 to a high of $2.3 million, for a person who contracted Guillain-Barre Syndrome after receiving the H1N1 influenza vaccine.

There is no provision for damages based on pain and suffering.

For people like Jessica McFadden, who said she developed life-threatening blood clots after receiving Johnson & Johnson’s COVID-19 vaccine in April, legal options are unclear. She's not optimistic about her odds of recovering her losses, and it's certain she won't be able to recover any pain and suffering damages under the Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program.

McFadden, 44, said she was previously healthy and needed two emergency surgeries to remove massive clots in her lungs, heart and left leg. She spent nine days in the hospital, racking up $489,153 in medical bills, she said. Her insurance will cover most, but not all of the tab, she said, and she estimates she'll pay up to $7,000 out of pocket.

She emailed me a photo of extracted clots, which she said were removed during an agonizing procedure performed while she was conscious. They are thick and ropy, like nightcrawlers on a surgical tray.

McFadden, who said she has returned to work but is still taking blood thinners, has not spoken publicly of her ordeal until now. “I’m not an anti-vaxxer. I understand the need for the vaccine,” she said. “I was just trying to do the right thing.”

To be clear, an experience like McFadden described is extremely rare. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in May said that out of 8.7 million people who had gotten the J&J jab, only 28 suffered the complication known as thrombosis with thrombocytopenia syndrome. Per the CDC, there is a "plausible causal association" between the vaccine and the blood clots.

Johnson & Johnson in a statement said, “The safety and well-being of the people who use our products is our number one priority.”

To McFadden, the issue is not that COVID-19 vaccines are bad or that no one should get them. Rather, she said, what’s important is how we care for people “when something catastrophic happens” as a result, especially now that vaccine mandates are becoming so widespread.

For decades, vaccine makers have been shielded from product liability lawsuits thanks to the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act of 1986. The law was passed after pharmaceutical companies were hit with lawsuits over a brain injury known as pertussis vaccine encephalopathy and threatened to quit making the DPT (diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus) vaccine altogether.

Under the 1986 law, people who claim to have been injured by DPT, hepatitis, influenza and other common shots bring their cases in a special, no-fault tribunal, the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program, known colloquially as “vaccine court.” Payouts (including attorneys’ fees) are funded by a 75-cent tax per vaccine.

The forum is far from perfect, but over the years, it has awarded more than $4 billion to injured claimants.

But that’s not where the COVID-19 vaccine injury cases are being decided.

In March 2020, then-Health and Human Services secretary Alex Azar issued a declaration under the Public Readiness and Emergency Preparedness (PREP) Act of 2005 providing liability immunity for medical countermeasures related to the novel coronavirus. Injury claims would be handled by the Countermeasures Injury Compensation Program, which is run by the Health Resources and Services Administration and is geared toward public health emergencies.

Coverage for claimants is limited: Lost wages up to $50,000 a year and out-of-pocket medical expenses. If the person died,

his or her next-of-kin can seek death benefits up to $370,376.

A spokeswoman for HRSA declined my request for an interview but explained in an email how the process works.

First, the person claiming an injury submits a request for a benefits form and relevant medical records. For COVID-19 vaccine injuries, the claims already include a veritable Merck Manual of maladies, everything from dizziness to deafness to death, according to HRSA data.

The form is “reviewed by CICP medical staff,” who decide whether the requester is eligible for program benefits.

If requesters don’t like the decision, they can ask for reconsideration by “a qualified panel, independent of the program.” The panel makes a recommendation to the associate administrator of the Health Systems Bureau of HRSA, whose decision on the payout is final.

You might notice a few things are missing, like an independent judge, a chance to present one's case in person, damages for pain and suffering and the right to appeal beyond the agency.

Vaccine court has all these features. CICP has none.

But this is where the COVID-19 vaccine cases are relegated, at least for now. Per the steps laid out in the 1986 vaccine law, for the COVID-19 vaccine to move to vaccine court, the CDC must first recommend the shots for routine administration to children. Then Congress must pass a law adding the 75-cent tax on each COVID-19 vaccine given, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services must move the vaccines to the Vaccine Injury Compensation Program.

All of this could take years.

Legislation is pending in Congress that would expedite the process (as well as upping vaccine court damages, extending the statute of limitations from three years to five and adding more special masters), but it has yet to gain traction.

Spokespeople for the bill’s sponsors in the House of Representatives – Texas Democrat Lloyd Doggett, and Republicans Fred Upton of Michigan and Mike Kelly of Pennsylvania – did not respond to requests for comment.

In the meantime, people like McFadden face a strict one-year deadline from the date of vaccination to file a claim with the CICP. But it’s not clear if filing in the CICP would preclude her from later moving her case to vaccine court, should that become an option.

She told me that she's waiting until early next year to decide how to proceed.

Healthy mom suffers cascade of health problems after COVID shot, vows to fight medical corruption

5,000+ People in The United States Have Had A Similar ADE Issue According To The NIH.

She is holding a rally and vigil on the steps of the Supreme Court on November 2nd for similar victims. 

A young mother, Brianne Driessen, was eager to sign up for the Astrazeneca COVID shot trial. Almost immediately after getting the injenction, she began experiencing severe adverse reactions, which continue to this day. In this interview with LifeSite’s Jim Hale, Driessen makes a passionate appeal for true informed consent and help for the thousands of fellow victims of the COVID jab.

A young mother from Utah shared with LifeSiteNews her nightmarish experience of developing severe adverse reactions immediately after receiving the COVID jab as part of the AstraZeneca COVID shot trial.

Brianne Dressen from Utah was a healthy mother of two young children and a pre-school teacher who eagerly signed up to the AstraZeneca COVID vaccine trial back in November 2020, as she was “confident that this was going to be our way out of the pandemic.” She received a first dose of the AstraZeneca vaccine on November 4 and started experiencing adverse effects within an hour of getting the shot.

Dressen first experienced tingling in her arm, blurred vision, hyper-sensitivity to sound, light and touch, dizziness, nausea, and leg numbness. Weeks later, she was admitted to the hospital after her legs “stopped working” and she became incontinent. She had to undergo intense physical therapy, including re-learning how to walk.

Dressen was later diagnosed with a number of serious health conditions which affect her nervous system. She shared her ordeal with LifeSiteNews correspondent Jim Hale.

After a first of “many visits to the emergency room” ruled out multiple sclerosis and other major neuro-degenerative disorders, Dressen was sent home where she had to stay in a room by herself because of her extreme sensitivity to sound.

“My sensitivity to sound was so severe that even my little girl’s voice was too much for my ears,” she recalled.

She also suffered from hypersensitivity to light and had to “put towels on the windows to make the room completely black.”

Dressen lost 20 pounds, as she suffered from nausea and vomiting, and experienced difficulties swallowing her food.

She said she was certain that the vaccine was responsible for her condition.

“There is no question in my mind that the vaccine caused this reaction,” she said, before expressing anger and frustration at the fact that AstraZeneca did not investigate her case thoroughly, as would be expected during a clinical trial.

“You would hope that there would be someone that would be appropriately tracking the data, that these cases (even if they’re rare) are evaluated, that they are discussed, that the information is disclosed in a full and transparent manner. Unfortunately, that has not been the case,” she said.

“I really wish I could say that the drug companies did their due diligence with this, but they didn’t,” she added.

Dressen also revealed that her case was not included in the list of severe adverse events that was published by AstraZeneca. “And now there’s their published clinical trial data. I’m not in it,” she said.

AstraZeneca claims to follow up with all serious adverse events cases for up to 720 days but monitored Dressen over a much shorter period of time.

“I definitely was a serious adverse event,” said Dressen, “I was followed up with for 60 days.”

The pharmaceutical giant also agreed in their contract with clinical trial volunteers to pay for any injury or medical need that would result from the vaccine. An agreement that they did not honor in Dressen’s case.

“After months of repeated pleading and fighting with them to help us with the massive pile of medical bills, I have 590 dollars from them.”

For a long time, doctors could not figure out what was wrong with the young mother. They first diagnosed Dressen with “anxiety” from the COVID vaccine. But she was then able to go to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) where she received appropriate diagnoses, which included a number of nervous disorders such as: non-length-dependent neuropathy, short-term memory loss, sensory neuropathy, dysautonomia and severe postural tachycardia syndrome.

The young woman still suffers from these adverse effects to this day, almost a year after having been vaccinated, and her life has not been the same since.

“My body went from functioning at a normal, healthy level; I was able to take care of my kids and my work, too,” she said. “Now, my big accomplishment today will be talking to you and the fact that I made myself breakfast.”

LifeSiteNews correspondent Jim Hale then asked Dressen to discuss how this event changed her views on the pharmaceutical industry.

“This has been very eye opening for me,” replied Dressen, “I feel like I’ve been plucked out of the matrix.”

Dressen explained that she grew increasingly distrustful of government agencies as she witnessed evidence of them purposefully withholding information from the public.

“These [adverse] reactions are not being disclosed to the public,” she said. “Because of this, the public is not being provided informed consent, but also the medical community is not being informed appropriately that these reactions can happen.”

Dressen also claimed that attempts at withholding information on adverse events from the public does not only come from social media platforms but also from within the medical world.

“There’s medical censorship happening,” she said, “there’s censorship with the research; we have researchers that have tried to get case studies published in scientific journals and they can’t get them published.”

The young mother became emotional when she recalled that some of the people suffering from these adverse effects have committed suicide.

“I had to write a eulogy for a dear friend of mine, for her husband to read after she took her life,” she said.

Dressen and Hale then discussed other cases of people that have suffered loss as a result of the vaccine’s adverse effects, including that of Ernest Ramirez, a father from Texas who recently lost his 15-year-old son to the Pfizer vaccine. Hale also mentioned that in a recent interview with LifeSiteNews, Dr. Robert Malone, a pioneer of the mRNA technology used in the development of the COVID vaccines “told us, flat out, if you have an adolescent son, he should not be getting the vaccine.”

Among some of the initiatives taken in response to this issue, Dressen mentioned a website with over 500 testimonies and accounts of people who have suffered from COVID vaccine adverse events.

Additionally, she announced that a press conference is going to take place on November 2 on the steps of the Supreme Court to hold government agencies accountable.

“We’re uniting with those like Ernest Ramirez and we’re going to the capital to plead with our elected officials to help us and to hold these agencies, the FDA, the CDC, the NIH, accountable, because we know acutely just how much they know,” she said.

“They know about the suicides [and] the suicide attempts, they know about people losing their jobs because of inappropriate mandates, they know about the sick kids, they know about people being buried under medical debt and losing their homes, they know about the issues with the clinical trials,” she added.

In conclusion of the interview, Dressen insisted that she was not anti-vaccine and explained that her husband had gotten the COVID vaccine, but she advocated for informed consent and not coercing people.

“I really believe that everybody should have appropriate full informed consent so they can make an appropriate choice for themselves; and also, because there is a risk, there absolutely needs to be a choice,” she said.

She condemned government agencies for letting people who suffer from these adverse events deal with them on their own and for abandoning them.

“The problem is, if you get a vaccine reaction like this, you are completely on your own. The government agencies are not going to help you,” she said. “You will not be able to get financially compensated and your medical teams will have no idea what to do with you.”


Brianne Driessen

CNN Accidentally Let Someone Tell The Truth On Air

Bari Weiss says the mainstream media and World has gone mad!

COVID Origins Investigator Wins $1 Million Chinese Prize For Claiming Virus Developed Naturally

Dr. Malik Peiris, who previously served on the Lancet medical journal’s COVID-19 origins investigation committee, received China’s “Nobel Prize” for research affirming the Chinese Communist Party’s false narrative that COVID-19 developed naturally.

Peiris, a Sri Lankan virologist working in Hong Kong, was one of 12 scientists leading the now-defunct Lancet probe into the origins of COVID-19. While the task force is no longer listed on the medical journal’s website, as it was forced to disband due to extensive conflicts of interests with the Wuhan Institute of Virology, archived web pages reveal Peiris’s participation in the effort.

Following Peiris’s stint on the task force, the Chinese Communist Party awarded him with the prize in life sciences in the 2021 Future Science Prize – dubbed China’s “Nobel Prize.” China’s top scientific honor is accompanied by a $1 million prize, which is funded by several Chinese Communist Party-linked companies such as Baidu, Hillhouse Capital, and Sequoia Capital China.

State-run media outlet Global Times claimed the award was for his “major discoveries of SARS-CoV-1 as the causative agent of the global SARS outbreak in 2003 with impact on combating COVID-19 and emerging infectious diseases.” Peiris shared the award with co-author Kwok-Yung Yuen.

In an exclusive interview with the Chinese Communist Party-run media outlet, Yuen asserted “this is one of the most important prizes not just in China but also internationally.”

Peiris’s research was praised by award reviewers as playing an integral role in tracing the origins of COVID-19, as reviewer Wang Xiaodong noted “Chinese scientists were able to quickly identify the cause of the COVID-19 pandemic thanks to their contributions.” The research bolstered the Chinese Communist Party’s fake narrative that COVID-19 developed naturally as opposed to escaping from a lab.

As Global Times explains, Peiris’s research helped “support the bat origin of SARS-CoV-2”:

When asked how their discoveries affect people’s understanding of the cause of COVID-19, Yuen explained that since he and his team discovered in 2005 that the horseshoe bat was the natural animal reservoir for the ancestral SARS-CoV-1, they believe that SARS-CoV-2 “also went from bats to another mammal(s) before jumping into humans.”

Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 replicates very well in both bat and human intestinal organs, which further supports the bat origin of SARS-CoV-2, he said.

Forget Class Action Lawsuits There Will Be Tribunals


Dr. Zelenko Board Certified Family Physician with over 20 years of experience. Dr. Zelenko was nominated for the Presidential Medal of Freedom and the Nobel Prize, Dr. Zelenko’s team was one of the first in the country to successfully treat thousands of Covid-19 patients in the prehospital setting. 

Dr. Zelenko developed his now famous “Zelenko Protocol,” which has saved countless lives worldwide. Dr. Zelenko recommended that President Trump take hydroxychloroquine. Dr. Zelenko explains how and why he decided to use HCQ and how he has created success in curing over 7000 patients who had covid. Cures already exist, and Dr. Zelenko believes that HCQ might even cure the flu and this is why the medical community is pushing back so hard, it would eliminate the flu shot.

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tribunals

Dr. Bryan Ardis Exposes Hospital Protocols Murdering Americans

Dr. Bryan Ardis discusses the 4,000 new cases of "multi-inflammatory disease"  among children where organs are getting inflamed and this is brand new in 2020. 


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Dr. Bryan Ardis joins John Di Lemme on the CBJ Real News Podcast Show to discuss Covid-19 hospital protocols that are killing Americans, the deadly vaccine, and more!

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Dr. Bryan Ardis hospitals are killing people

Vax Pushing CEOs Are "Terrorist" Against Their Own Employees

 
Dr. David Martin condemns vax-pushing corporate CEOs are committing "terrorism" against their own employees. David Martin - https://www.davidmartin.world

CEO's are violating Federal law by coercing employees of private companies to take an experimental drug. 

We are a lot lower than 50% or 60% vaccinated and he doesn't believe the CDC's numbers. 

Watch this brilliant video published by Dr David Martin on the mRNA patents.  Coronavirus Genome Sequencing vs Patent Records

Dr David Martin

How Much Does The Pfizer Vaccine Cost Per Dose?

Vaccine cost per dose

In initial deals with the U.S. government, Pfizer and BioNTech's vaccine costs $19.50 per dose, compared with $15 for Moderna's shot, $16 for Novavax's program, $10 for Johnson & Johnson's vaccine and $4 for AstraZeneca's. 

The EU is also paying less for the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine than the U.S., $14.70 per dose versus $19.50, according to figures reported in BMJ. On the other hand, the U.S. is paying less for the Moderna vaccine (about $15) than the EU (about $18), according to the BMJ piece. The contribution governments have made toward vaccine research is the explanation for the price differences. Moderna is charging the U.S. less for its vaccine because the U.S. government funded research that led to the vaccine’s development. Similarly, the EU supported research that led to the development of the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine, thus the lower price for that vaccine for the EU.

So far, governments around the world have been the only purchasers of the COVID-19 vaccines, so the price has been set by government contracts. But different countries are paying different prices. South Africa, for example, reportedly paid $5.25 per dose for the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine in January, more than twice the price of $2.15 per dose paid by the European Union (EU), according to a report in BMJ. The South African government has announced that it is holding back on administering that vaccine because it may be less effective against the country’s namesake variant.

First to receive emergency use authorization in the United States, the Pfizer shot has become the world’s most popular, with 3.5 billion doses purchased. Sales could double in 2022, according to projections.

But the rapid proliferation of the vaccine, under contracts negotiated between the company and governments, has unfolded behind a veil of strict secrecy, allowing for little public scrutiny of Pfizer’s burgeoning power, even as demand surges amid new negotiations for one of the world’s most sought-after products.

A report released Tuesday by Public Citizen, a consumer rights advocacy group that gained access to a number of leaked, unredacted Pfizer contracts, sheds light on how the company uses that power to “shift risk and maximize profits,” the organization argues.

The Manhattan-based pharmaceutical giant has maintained tight levels of secrecy about negotiations with governments over contracts that can determine the fate of populations. The “contracts consistently place Pfizer’s interests before public health imperatives,” said Zain Rizvi, the researcher who wrote the report.

Public Citizen found common themes across contracts, including not only secrecy but also language to block donations of Pfizer doses. Disputes are settled in secret arbitration courts, with Pfizer able to change the terms of key decisions, including delivery dates, and demand public assets as collateral.

Sharon Castillo, a spokeswoman for Pfizer, said that confidentiality clauses were “standard in commercial contracts” and “intended to help build trust between the parties, as well as protect the confidential commercial information exchanged during negotiations and included in final contracts.”

Both Pfizer and Moderna, another U.S. company that developed a vaccine using breakthrough mRNA technology, are facing pressure from critics who accuse them of building a “duopoly.” Although Pfizer did not accept government funding through the vaccine development program called Operation Warp Speed, it received huge advance orders from the United States. It opposed an intellectual property waiver that could have meant the sharing of its technology.

Experts who reviewed the terms of contracts with foreign governments suggested that some demands were extreme. In contracts reached with Brazil, Chile, Colombia and the Dominican Republic, those states forfeited “immunity against precautionary seizure of any of [their] assets.”

“It’s almost as if the company would ask the United States to put the Grand Canyon as collateral,” said Lawrence Gostin, a professor of public health law at Georgetown University.

The company rejected that logic. “Pfizer has not interfered and has absolutely no intention of interfering with any country’s diplomatic, military, or culturally significant assets,” Castillo said. “To suggest anything to the contrary is irresponsible and misleading.”

Some contract demands appear to have slowed vaccine rollouts in countries. At least two countries walked away from negotiations and publicly criticized the company’s demands. However, both later reached agreements with Pfizer.

Aspects of the contracts are not uncommon, including the reliance on arbitration courts and clauses designed to give companies legal protections. Pfizer’s price for its vaccine, as low as $10 per dose in Brazil, appeared to be lower than some competitors’ prices.

“Pharma companies have concerns,” said Julia Barnes-Weise, director of the Global Healthcare Innovation Alliance Accelerator. “One of them is, especially for a not-yet-approved vaccine, that they could be held liable for any injury that that vaccine seems to have caused.”

Secret contracts

Pfizer has formalized 73 deals for its coronavirus vaccine. According to Transparency International, a London-based advocacy group, only five contracts have been formally published by governments, and these with “significant redactions.”

“Hiding contracts from public view or publishing documents filled with redacted text means we don’t know how or when vaccines will arrive, what happens if things go wrong and the level of financial risk buyers are absorbing,” said Tom Wright, research manager at the Transparency International Health Program.

Much of what is known about Pfizer’s contracts has come out in leaks, often through journalism from local outlets or international ones, including the Bureau of Investigative Journalism.

Public Citizen analyzed an unredacted draft agreement between the company and Albania, as well as unredacted final documents from Brazil, Colombia, the Dominican Republic, Peru and the European Commission. Redacted documents published by Chile, the United States and Britain provide further context, though they are missing key details.

The contract reached with Brazil prohibits the government from making “any public announcement concerning the existence, subject matter or terms of [the] Agreement” or commenting on its relationship with Pfizer without the prior written consent of the company.

“This is next-level stuff,” said Tahir Amin, an intellectual property lawyer who co-founded I-Mak, a nonprofit global health organization.

Pfizer exerted control over the supply of vaccine doses after contracts were signed. The Brazilian government was restricted from accepting donations of Pfizer doses or making its own donations. Pfizer also included clauses in contracts with Albania, Brazil and Colombia that it could unilaterally change delivery schedules in the case of shortages.

In contracts with Brazil, Chile, Colombia, the Dominican Republic and Peru, governments were required to sign a document that says each “expressly and irrevocably waives any right of immunity which either it or its assets may have or acquire in the future.” The first four also were required to waive immunity against “precautionary” seizure of their assets.

Public Citizen found contracts that required governments “‘to indemnify, defend and hold harmless Pfizer’ from and against any and all suits, claims, actions, demands, damages, costs and expenses related to vaccine intellectual property.”

An opaque giant

Pfizer has not experienced the same level of public scrutiny as Moderna, which has been accused of price-gouging and delaying deliveries. Analytics firm Airfinity this week predicted Pfizer will sell $54.5 billion worth of coronavirus vaccine next year, almost twice the value of Moderna’s sales.

One official from a country in the midst of negotiations with Pfizer, who was not authorized to speak on the matter, said that the country found Pfizer difficult to negotiate with but reliable in the delivery of vaccine doses.

Like Moderna’s, Pfizer’s vaccine has been found to be highly effective against the delta variant of the coronavirus and to provide long-lasting immunity. From the leaked documents, Pfizer appears to have offered lower prices for its vaccine to poorer countries that had less leverage.

Castillo said that Pfizer had committed to a tiered pricing approach, with wealthier nations paying about the cost of a takeout meal per dose and lower-middle-income countries offered prices at a not-for-profit price. Some 99 million doses had reached low- and lower-middle-income countries so far, and the company expects “substantial increase in shipments to these countries through the end of the year.”

Contract terms related to sovereign immunity may have been an attempt to cover for some risks over which the company has little control, including the use of new, unapproved vaccines in partner countries where the company has little oversight over storage and distribution. Pfizer may have been worried about opportunistic lawsuits in countries where it had not filed patents, Barnes-Weise said.

Some countries, including the United States, have laws that provide indemnification to vaccine manufacturers, but most do not.

However, Transparency International argued that at least four contracts or drafts it examined went “much further” than other vaccine developers, with “more of the risk onto national governments, and away from the developer, even if missteps are made by the developer or supply chain partners, and not just if there is a rare adverse effect of the vaccines.”

Suerie Moon, co-director of the global health center at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, said that restrictions on donations were “appalling” and “counter to the goal of getting vaccines as quickly as possible to those who need them.”

Castillo said Pfizer is not currently pursuing legal action against any government related to its coronavirus vaccine.

At least two countries that initially backed out of negotiations with Pfizer later returned. In January, Brazil publicly said Pfizer was insisting on “unfair and abusive” contractual terms, pointing to the confidentiality clauses. Just months later, Brazil signed a $1 billion contract with the drug giant for 100 million doses. Public Citizen says that the signed contract, later leaked, contained many of the provisions that Brazil once opposed.

Argentina also rejected early negotiations with Pfizer, with the country’s former health minister publicly saying the company “behaved very badly” and was making demands that did not comply with Argentine law. The country later agreed to purchase 20 million doses. The unredacted contract has not been released.

Covax, a World Health Organization-backed vaccine-sharing initiative, has purchased only a relatively modest 40 million doses directly from Pfizer, with reports of disputes during subsequent negotiations. Covax later reached an agreement with the United States for Washington to buy and redistribute 500 million Pfizer doses to low-income countries through Covax.

In its report, Public Citizen called on the U.S. government to use its leverage to force Pfizer to take a different approach, including requiring the company to share technology and intellectual property so that other manufacturers can produce the vaccine.

“The global community cannot allow pharmaceutical corporations to keep calling the shots,” Rizvi said. “The Biden administration can step up and balance the scales.”

List of Studies Showing Natural Immunity ‘Equal’ or ‘Superior’ to Jab

natural immunity antibody levels

We should not force COVID vaccines on anyone when the evidence shows that naturally acquired immunity is equal to or more robust and superior to existing vaccines. Instead, we should respect the right of the bodily integrity of individuals to decide for themselves.

Public health officials and the medical establishment with the help of the politicized media are misleading the public with assertions that the COVID-19 shots provide greater protection than natural immunity.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Director Rochelle Walensky, for example, was deceptive in her October 2020 published LANCET statement that “there is no evidence for lasting protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 following natural infection” and that “the consequence of waning immunity would present a risk to vulnerable populations for the indefinite future.”

Immunology and virology 101 have taught us over a century that natural immunity confers protection against a respiratory virus’s outer coat proteins, and not just one, e.g., the SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein.

There is even strong evidence for the persistence of antibodies. Even the CDC recognizes natural immunity for chickenpox and measles, mumps and rubella, but not for COVID-19.

The vaccinated are showing viral loads (very high) similar to the unvaccinated, and the vaccinated are as infectious. Riemersma et al. also report Wisconsin data that corroborate how the vaccinated individuals who get infected with the Delta variant can potentially (and are) transmit(ting) SARS-CoV-2 to others (potentially to the vaccinated and unvaccinated).

This troubling situation of the vaccinated being infectious and transmitting the virus emerged in seminal nosocomial outbreak papers by Chau et al. (HCWs in Vietnam), the Finland hospital outbreak (spread among HCWs and patients), and the Israel hospital outbreak (spread among HCWs and patients).

These studies also revealed that the personal protective equipment (PPE) and masks were essentially ineffective in the healthcare setting. Again, the Marek’s disease in chickens and the vaccination situation explains what we are potentially facing with these leaky vaccines (increased transmission, faster transmission, and more ‘hotter’ variants).

Moreover, existing immunity should be assessed before any vaccination, via an accurate, dependable and reliable antibody test (or T cell immunity test) or be based on documentation of prior infection (a previous positive PCR or antigen test). Such would be evidence of immunity that is equal to that of vaccination and the immunity should be provided the same societal status as any vaccine-induced immunity.

This will function to mitigate the societal anxiety with these forced vaccine mandates and societal upheaval due to job loss, denial of societal privileges etc. Tearing apart the vaccinated and the unvaccinated in a society — separating them — is not medically or scientifically supportable.

The Brownstone Institute previously documented 30 studies on natural immunity as it relates to COVID-19.

This follow-up chart is the most updated and comprehensive library list of 81 of the highest-quality, complete, most robust scientific studies and evidence reports/position statements on natural immunity as compared to the COVID-19 vaccine-induced immunity and allows you to draw your own conclusion.

Co-authors:

Dr. Harvey Risch, M.D., Ph.D. (Yale School of Public Health)

Dr. Howard Tenenbaum, Ph.D. ( Faculty of Medicine, University of Toronto)

Dr. Ramin Oskoui, M.D. (Foxhall Cardiology, Washington)

Dr. Peter McCullough, M.D. (Truth for Health Foundation, Texas)

Dr. Parvez Dara, M.D. (consultant, Medical Hematologist and Oncologist)

Study / report title, author, and year publishedPredominant finding on natural immunity
1) Necessity of COVID-19 vaccination in previously infected individuals, Shrestha, 2021“Cumulative incidence of COVID-19 was examined among 52,238 employees in an American healthcare system.

“The cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection remained almost zero among previously infected unvaccinated subjects, previously infected subjects who were vaccinated, and previously uninfected subjects who were vaccinated, compared with a steady increase in cumulative incidence among previously uninfected subjects who remained unvaccinated.

“Not one of the 1359 previously infected subjects who remained unvaccinated had a SARS-CoV-2 infection over the duration of the study. Individuals who have had SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to benefit from COVID-19 vaccination…”

2) SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell immunity in cases of COVID-19 and SARS, and uninfected controls, Le Bert, 2020“Studied T cell responses against the structural (nucleocapsid (N) protein) and non-structural (NSP7 and NSP13 of ORF1) regions of SARS-CoV-2 in individuals convalescing from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) (n = 36).

“In all of these individuals, we found CD4 and CD8 T cells that recognized multiple regions of the N protein … showed that patients (n = 23) who recovered from SARS possess long-lasting memory T cells that are reactive to the N protein of SARS-CoV 17 years after the outbreak of SARS in 2003; these T cells displayed robust cross-reactivity to the N protein of SARS-CoV-2.”

3) Comparing SARS-CoV-2 natural immunity to vaccine-induced immunity: reinfections versus breakthrough infections,Gazit, 2021“A retrospective observational study comparing three groups:

“(1) SARS-CoV-2-naïve individuals who received a two-dose regimen of the BioNTech/Pfizer mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine, (2) previously infected individuals who have not been vaccinated and (3) previously infected and single-dose vaccinated individuals, found para a 13 fold increased risk of breakthrough Delta infections in double vaccinated persons, and a 27 fold increased risk for symptomatic breakthrough infection in the double vaccinated relative to the natural immunity recovered persons …

“ … the risk of hospitalization was 8 times higher in the double vaccinated (para) … this analysis demonstrated that natural immunity affords longer-lasting and stronger protection against infection, symptomatic disease and hospitalization due to the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2, compared to the BNT162b2 two-dose vaccine-induced immunity.”

4) Highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response in asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, Le Bert, 2021“Studied SARS-CoV-2–specific T cells in a cohort of asymptomatic (n = 85) and symptomatic (n = 75) COVID-19 patients after seroconversion …

“thus, asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2–infected individuals are not characterized by weak antiviral immunity; on the contrary, they mount a highly functional virus-specific cellular immune response.”

5) Large-scale study of antibody titer decay following BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine or SARS-CoV-2 infection, Israel, 2021“A total of 2,653 individuals fully vaccinated by two doses of vaccine during the study period and 4,361 convalescent patients were included.

“Higher SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody titers were observed in vaccinated individuals (median 1581 AU/mL IQR [533.8-5644.6]) after the second vaccination, than in convalescent individuals (median 355.3 AU/mL IQR [141.2-998.7]; p<0.001).

“In vaccinated subjects, antibody titers decreased by up to 40% each subsequent month while in convalescents they decreased by less than 5% per month …

“this study demonstrates individuals who received the Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA vaccine have different kinetics of antibody levels compared to patients who had been infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus, with higher initial levels but a much faster exponential decrease in the first group.”

6) SARS-CoV-2 re-infection risk in Austria, Pilz, 2021Researchers recorded: “40 tentative re-infections in 14, 840 COVID-19 survivors of the first wave (0.27%) and 253 581 infections in 8, 885, 640 individuals of the remaining general population (2.85%) translating into an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.09 (0.07 to 0.13)…relatively low re-infection rate of SARS-CoV-2 in Austria.

“Protection against SARS-CoV-2 after natural infection is comparable with the highest available estimates on vaccine efficacies.”

Additionally, hospitalization in only five out of 14,840 (0.03%) people and death in one out of 14,840 (0.01%) (tentative re-infection).

7) mRNA vaccine-induced SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells recognize B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status, Neidleman, 2021“Spike-specific T cells from convalescent vaccinees differed strikingly from those of infection-naïve vaccinees, with phenotypic features suggesting superior long-term persistence and ability to home to the respiratory tract including the nasopharynx.

“These results provide reassurance that vaccine-elicited T cells respond robustly to the B.1.1.7 and B.1.351 variants, confirm that convalescents may not need a second vaccine dose.”

8) Good news: Mild COVID-19 induces lasting antibody protection, Bhandari, 2021“Months after recovering from mild cases of COVID-19, people still have immune cells in their body pumping out antibodies against the virus that causes COVID-19, according to a study from researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis.

“Such cells could persist for a lifetime, churning out antibodies all the while.

“The findings, published May 24 in the journal Nature, suggest that mild cases of COVID-19 leave those infected with lasting antibody protection and that repeated bouts of illness are likely to be uncommon.”

9) Robust neutralizing antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 infection persist for months, Wajnberg, 2021“Neutralizing antibody titers against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein persisted for at least 5 months after infection.

“Although continued monitoring of this cohort will be needed to confirm the longevity and potency of this response, these preliminary results suggest that the chance of reinfection may be lower than is currently feared.”

10) Evolution of antibody immunity to SARS-CoV-2, Gaebler, 2020“Concurrently, neutralizing activity in plasma decreases by five-fold in pseudo-type virus assays. In contrast, the number of RBD-specific memory B cells is unchanged.

“Memory B cells display clonal turnover after 6.2 months, and the antibodies they express have greater somatic hypermutation, increased potency and resistance to RBD mutations, indicative of continued evolution of the humoral response …

“we conclude that the memory B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 evolves between 1.3 and 6.2 months after infection in a manner that is consistent with antigen persistence.”

11) Persistence of neutralizing antibodies a year after SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans, Haveri, 2021“Assessed the persistence of serum antibodies following WT SARS-CoV-2 infection at 8 and 13 months after diagnosis in 367 individuals …

“found that NAb against the WT virus persisted in 89% and S-IgG in 97% of subjects for at least 13 months after infection.”

12) Quantifying the risk of SARS‐CoV‐2 reinfection over time, Murchu, 2021“Eleven large cohort studies were identified that estimated the risk of SARS‐CoV‐2 reinfection over time, including three that enrolled healthcare workers and two that enrolled residents and staff of elderly care homes.

“Across studies, the total number of PCR‐positive or antibody‐positive participants at baseline was 615,777, and the maximum duration of follow‐up was more than 10 months in three studies.

“Reinfection was an uncommon event (absolute rate 0%–1.1%), with no study reporting an increase in the risk of reinfection over time.”

13) Natural immunity to COVID is powerful. Policymakers seem afraid to say so, Makary, 2021Makary writes “it’s okay to have an incorrect scientific hypothesis. But when new data proves it wrong, you have to adapt.

“Unfortunately, many elected leaders and public health officials have held on far too long to the hypothesis that natural immunity offers unreliable protection against covid-19 — a contention that is being rapidly debunked by science.

“More than 15 studies have demonstrated the power of immunity acquired by previously having the virus.

“A 700,000-person study from Israel two weeks ago found that those who had experienced prior infections were 27 times less likely to get a second symptomatic covid infection than those who were vaccinated.

“This affirmed a June Cleveland Clinic study of health-care workers (who are often exposed to the virus), in which none who had previously tested positive for the coronavirus got reinfected.

“The study authors concluded that ‘individuals who have had SARS-CoV-2 infection are unlikely to benefit from covid-19 vaccination.’

“And in May, a Washington University study found that even a mild covid infection resulted in long-lasting immunity.”

14) SARS-CoV-2 elicits robust adaptive immune responses regardless of disease severity, Nielsen, 2021“203 recovered SARS-CoV-2 infected patients in Denmark between April 3rd and July 9th, 2020, at least 14 days after COVID-19 symptom recovery …

“report broad serological profiles within the cohort, detecting antibody binding to other human coronaviruses … the viral surface spike protein was identified as the dominant target for both neutralizing antibodies and CD8+ T-cell responses.

“Overall, the majority of patients had robust adaptive immune responses, regardless of their disease severity.”

15) Protection of previous SARS-CoV-2 infection is similar to that of BNT162b2 vaccine protection: A three-month nationwide experience from Israel, Goldberg, 2021“Analyze an updated individual-level database of the entire population of Israel to assess the protection efficacy of both prior infection and vaccination in preventing subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalization with COVID-19, severe disease, and death due to COVID-19 …

“vaccination was highly effective with overall estimated efficacy for documented infection of 92·8% (CI:[92·6, 93·0]); hospitalization 94·2% (CI:[93·6, 94·7]); severe illness 94·4% (CI:[93·6, 95·0]); and death 93·7% (CI:[92·5, 94·7]).

“Similarly, the overall estimated level of protection from prior SARS-CoV-2 infection for documented infection is 94·8% (CI: [94·4, 95·1]); hospitalization 94·1% (CI: [91·9, 95·7]); and severe illness 96·4% (CI: [92·5, 98·3])…results question the need to vaccinate previously-infected individuals.”

16) Incidence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 infection among previously infected or vaccinated employees, Kojima, 2021“Employees were divided into three groups: (1) SARS-CoV-2 naïve and unvaccinated, (2) previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, and (3) vaccinated.

“Person-days were measured from the date of the employee first test and truncated at the end of the observation period. SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as two positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests in a 30-day period …

“4313, 254 and 739 employee records for groups 1, 2, and 3 … previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination for SARS-CoV-2 were associated with decreased risk for infection or re-infection with SARS-CoV-2 in a routinely screened workforce.

“There was no difference in the infection incidence between vaccinated individuals and individuals with previous infection.”

17) Having SARS-CoV-2 once confers much greater immunity than a vaccine — but vaccination remains vital, Wadman, 2021“Israelis who had an infection were more protected against the Delta coronavirus variant than those who had an already highly effective COVID-19 vaccine …

“the newly released data show people who once had a SARS-CoV-2 infection were much less likely than never-infected, vaccinated people to get Delta, develop symptoms from it, or become hospitalized with serious COVID-19.”

18) One-year sustained cellular and humoral immunities of COVID-19 convalescents, Zhang, 2021“A systematic antigen-specific immune evaluation in 101 COVID-19 convalescents; SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies, and also NAb can persist among over 95% COVID-19 convalescents from 6 months to 12 months after disease onset.

“At least 19/71 (26%) of COVID-19 convalescents (double-positive in ELISA and MCLIA) had detectable circulating IgM antibody against SARS-CoV-2 at 12m post-disease onset.

“Notably, the percentages of convalescents with positive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses (at least one of the SARS-CoV-2 antigen S1, S2, M and N protein) were 71/76 (93%) and 67/73 (92%) at 6m and 12m, respectively.”

19) Functional SARS-CoV-2-Specific Immune Memory Persists after Mild COVID-19, Rodda, 2021“Recovered individuals developed SARS-CoV-2-specific immunoglobulin (IgG) antibodies, neutralizing plasma, and memory B and memory T cells that persisted for at least 3 months.

“Our data further reveal that SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG memory B cells increased over time.

“Additionally, SARS-CoV-2-specific memory lymphocytes exhibited characteristics associated with potent antiviral function: memory T cells secreted cytokines and expanded upon antigen re-encounter, whereas memory B cells expressed receptors capable of neutralizing virus when expressed as monoclonal antibodies.

“Therefore, mild COVID-19 elicits memory lymphocytes that persist and display functional hallmarks of antiviral immunity.”

20) Discrete Immune Response Signature to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination Versus Infection, Ivanova, 2021“Performed multimodal single-cell sequencing on peripheral blood of patients with acute COVID-19 and healthy volunteers before and after receiving the SARS-CoV-2 BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine to compare the immune responses elicited by the virus and by this vaccine …

“both infection and vaccination induced robust innate and adaptive immune responses, our analysis revealed significant qualitative differences between the two types of immune challenges.

“In COVID-19 patients, immune responses were characterized by a highly augmented interferon response which was largely absent in vaccine recipients.

“ Increased interferon signaling likely contributed to the observed dramatic upregulation of cytotoxic genes in the peripheral T cells and innate-like lymphocytes in patients but not in immunized subjects.

“Analysis of B and T cell receptor repertoires revealed that while the majority of clonal B and T cells in COVID-19 patients were effector cells, in vaccine recipients clonally expanded cells were primarily circulating memory cells …

“we observed the presence of cytotoxic CD4 T cells in COVID-19 patients that were largely absent in healthy volunteers following immunization.

“While hyper-activation of inflammatory responses and cytotoxic cells may contribute to immunopathology in severe illness, in mild and moderate disease, these features are indicative of protective immune responses and resolution of infection.”

21) SARS-CoV-2 infection induces long-lived bone marrow plasma cells in humans, Turner, 2021“Bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) are a persistent and essential source of protective antibodies …

“durable serum antibody titres are maintained by long-lived plasma cells — non-replicating, antigen-specific plasma cells that are detected in the bone marrow long after the clearance of the antigen …

“S-binding BMPCs are quiescent, which suggests that they are part of a stable compartment.

“Consistently, circulating resting memory B cells directed against SARS-CoV-2 S were detected in the convalescent individuals.

“Overall, our results indicate that mild infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces robust antigen-specific, long-lived humoral immune memory in humans …

“overall, our data provide strong evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans robustly establishes the two arms of humoral immune memory: long-lived bone marrow plasma cells (BMPCs) and memory B-cells.”

22) SARS-CoV-2 infection rates of antibody-positive compared with antibody-negative health-care workers in England: a large, multicentre, prospective cohort study (SIREN), Jane Hall, 2021“The SARS-CoV-2 Immunity and Reinfection Evaluation study… 30 625 participants were enrolled into the study …

“a previous history of SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with an 84% lower risk of infection, with median protective effect observed 7 months following primary infection.

“This time period is the minimum probable effect because seroconversions were not included. This study shows that previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 induces effective immunity to future infections in most individuals.”

23) Pandemic peak SARS-CoV-2 infection and seroconversion rates in London frontline health-care workers, Houlihan, 2020“Enrolled 200 patient-facing HCWs between March 26 and April 8, 2020 … represents a 13% infection rate (i.e. 14 of 112 HCWs) within the 1 month of follow-up in those with no evidence of antibodies or viral shedding at enrolment.

“By contrast, of 33 HCWs who tested positive by serology but tested negative by RT-PCR at enrolment, 32 remained negative by RT-PCR through follow-up, and one tested positive by RT-PCR on days 8 and 13 after enrolment.”

24) Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are associated with protection against reinfection, Lumley, 2021“Critical to understand whether infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) protects from subsequent reinfection …

“12219 HCWs participated…prior SARS-CoV-2 infection that generated antibody responses offered protection from reinfection for most people in the six months following infection.”

25) Longitudinal analysis shows durable and broad immune memory after SARS-CoV-2 infection with persisting antibody responses and memory B and T cells, Cohen, 2021“Evaluate 254 COVID-19 patients longitudinally up to 8 months and find durable broad-based immune responses.

“SARS-CoV-2 spike binding and neutralizing antibodies exhibit a bi-phasic decay with an extended half-life of >200 days suggesting the generation of longer-lived plasma cells …

“most recovered COVID-19 patients mount broad, durable immunity after infection, spike IgG+ memory B cells increase and persist post-infection, durable polyfunctional CD4 and CD8 T cells recognize distinct viral epitope regions.”

26) Single-cell profiling of T and B cell repertoires following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine, Sureshchandra, 2021“Used single-cell RNA sequencing and functional assays to compare humoral and cellular responses to two doses of mRNA vaccine with responses observed in convalescent individuals with asymptomatic disease …

“natural infection induced expansion of larger CD8 T cell clones occupied distinct clusters, likely due to the recognition of a broader set of viral epitopes presented by the virus not seen in the mRNA vaccine.”

27) SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positivity protects against reinfection for at least seven months with 95% efficacy, Abu-Raddad, 2021“SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive persons from April 16 to December 31, 2020, with a PCR-positive swab ≥14 days after the first-positive antibody test were investigated for evidence of reinfection, 43,044 antibody-positive persons who were followed for a median of 16.3 weeks … reinfection is rare in the young and international population of Qatar.

“Natural infection appears to elicit strong protection against reinfection with an efficacy ~95% for at least seven months.”

28) Orthogonal SARS-CoV-2 Serological Assays Enable Surveillance of Low-Prevalence Communities and Reveal Durable Humoral Immunity, Ripperger, 2020“Conducted a serological study to define correlates of immunity against SARS-CoV-2.

“Compared to those with mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases, individuals with severe disease exhibited elevated virus-neutralizing titers and antibodies against the nucleocapsid (N) and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein…neutralizing and spike-specific antibody production persists for at least 5–7 months …

“nucleocapsid antibodies frequently become undetectable by 5–7 months.”

29) Anti-spike antibody response to natural SARS-CoV-2 infection in the general population, Wei, 2021“In the general population using representative data from 7,256 United Kingdom COVID-19 infection survey participants who had positive swab SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests from 26-April-2020 to 14-June-2021 …

“we estimated antibody levels associated with protection against reinfection likely last 1.5-2 years on average, with levels associated with protection from severe infection present for several years.

“These estimates could inform planning for vaccination booster strategies.”

30) Antibody Status and Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Health Care Workers, Lumley, 2021“12,541 health care workers participated and had anti-spike IgG measured; 11,364 were followed up after negative antibody results and 1265 after positive results, including 88 in whom seroconversion occurred during follow-up …

“a total of 223 anti-spike–seronegative health care workers had a positive PCR test (1.09 per 10,000 days at risk), 100 during screening while they were asymptomatic and 123 while symptomatic, whereas 2 anti-spike–seropositive health care workers had a positive PCR test …

“the presence of anti-spike or anti-nucleocapsid IgG antibodies was associated with a substantially reduced risk of SARS-CoV-2 reinfection in the ensuing 6 months.”

31) Researchers find long-lived immunity to 1918 pandemic virus, CIDRAP, 2008

and the actual 2008 NATURE journal publication by Yu

“A study of the blood of older people who survived the 1918 influenza pandemic reveals that antibodies to the strain have lasted a lifetime and can perhaps be engineered to protect future generations against similar strains …

“the group collected blood samples from 32 pandemic survivors aged 91 to 101 … the people recruited for the study were 2 to 12 years old in 1918 and many recalled sick family members in their households, which suggests they were directly exposed to the virus, the authors report.

“The group found that 100% of the subjects had serum-neutralizing activity against the 1918 virus and 94% showed serologic reactivity to the 1918 hemagglutinin. The investigators generated B lymphoblastic cell lines from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of eight subjects.

“Transformed cells from the blood of 7 of the 8 donors yielded secreting antibodies that bound the 1918 hemagglutinin.”

“Yu: ‘here we show that of the 32 individuals tested that were born in or before 1915, each showed seroreactivity with the 1918 virus, nearly 90 years after the pandemic. Seven of the eight donor samples tested had circulating B cells that secreted antibodies that bound the 1918 HA.

“We isolated B cells from subjects and generated five monoclonal antibodies that showed potent neutralizing activity against 1918 virus from three separate donors. These antibodies also cross-reacted with the genetically similar HA of a 1930 swine H1N1 influenza strain.’”

32) Live virus neutralization testing in convalescent patients and subjects vaccinated against 19A, 20B, 20I/501Y.V1 and 20H/501Y.V2 isolates of SARS-CoV-2, Gonzalez, 2021“No significant difference was observed between the 20B and 19A isolates for HCWs with mild COVID-19 and critical patients. However, a significant decrease in neutralization ability was found for 20I/501Y.V1 in comparison with 19A isolate for critical patients and HCWs 6-months post-infection.

“Concerning 20H/501Y.V2, all populations had a significant reduction in neutralizing antibody titres in comparison with the 19A isolate.

“ Interestingly, a significant difference in neutralization capacity was observed for vaccinated HCWs between the two variants whereas it was not significant for the convalescent groups …

“the reduced neutralizing response observed towards the 20H/501Y.V2 in comparison with the 19A and 20I/501Y.V1 isolates in fully immunized subjects with the BNT162b2 vaccine is a striking finding of the study.”

33) Differential effects of the second SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine dose on T cell immunity in naïve and COVID-19 recovered individuals, Camara, 2021“Characterized SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific humoral and cellular immunity in naïve and previously infected individuals during full BNT162b2 vaccination …results demonstrate that the second dose increases both the humoral and cellular immunity in naïve individuals.

“On the contrary, the second BNT162b2 vaccine dose results in a reduction of cellular immunity in COVID-19 recovered individuals.”

34) Op-Ed: Quit Ignoring Natural COVID Immunity, Klausner, 2021“Epidemiologists estimate over 160 million people worldwide have recovered from COVID-19. Those who have recovered have an astonishingly low frequency of repeat infection, disease, or death.”
35) Association of SARS-CoV-2 Seropositive Antibody Test With Risk of Future Infection, Harvey, 2021“To evaluate evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on diagnostic nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT) among patients with positive vs negative test results for antibodies in an observational descriptive cohort study of clinical laboratory and linked claims data …

“the cohort included 3 257 478 unique patients with an index antibody test … patients with positive antibody test results were initially more likely to have positive NAAT results, consistent with prolonged RNA shedding, but became markedly less likely to have positive NAAT results over time, suggesting that seropositivity is associated with protection from infection.”

36) SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity and subsequent infection risk in healthy young adults: a prospective cohort study, Letizia, 2021“Investigated the risk of subsequent SARS-CoV-2 infection among young adults (CHARM marine study) seropositive for a previous infection … enrolled 3249 participants, of whom 3168 (98%) continued into the 2-week quarantine period. 3076 (95%) participants …

“Among 189 seropositive participants, 19 (10%) had at least one positive PCR test for SARS-CoV-2 during the 6-week follow-up (1·1 cases per person-year). In contrast, 1079 (48%) of 2247 seronegative participants tested positive (6·2 cases per person-year). The incidence rate ratio was 0·18 (95% CI 0·11–0·28; p<0·001) …

“infected seropositive participants had viral loads that were about 10-times lower than those of infected seronegative participants (ORF1ab gene cycle threshold difference 3·95 [95% CI 1·23–6·67]; p=0·004).”

37) Associations of Vaccination and of Prior Infection With Positive PCR Test Results for SARS-CoV-2 in Airline Passengers Arriving in Qatar, Bertollini, 2021“Of 9,180 individuals with no record of vaccination but with a record of prior infection at least 90 days before the PCR test (group 3), 7694 could be matched to individuals with no record of vaccination or prior infection (group 2), among whom PCR positivity was 1.01% (95% CI, 0.80%-1.26%) and 3.81% (95% CI, 3.39%-4.26%), respectively.

The relative risk for PCR positivity was 0.22 (95% CI, 0.17-0.28) for vaccinated individuals and 0.26 (95% CI, 0.21-0.34) for individuals with prior infection compared with no record of vaccination or prior infection.”

38) Natural immunity against COVID-19 significantly reduces the risk of reinfection: findings from a cohort of sero-survey participants, Mishra, 2021“Followed up with a subsample of our previous sero-survey participants to assess whether natural immunity against SARS-CoV-2 was associated with a reduced risk of re-infection (India) …

“out of the 2238 participants, 1170 were sero-positive and 1068 were seronegative for antibody against COVID-19.

“Our survey found that only 3 individuals in the sero-positive group got infected with COVID-19 whereas 127 individuals reported contracting the infection the sero-negative group …

“from the 3 sero-positives re-infected with COVID-19, one had hospitalization, but did not require oxygen support or critical care …

“development of antibody following natural infection not only protects against re-infection by the virus to a great extent, but also safeguards against progression to severe COVID-19 disease.”

39) Lasting immunity found after recovery from COVID-19, NIH, 2021“The researchers found durable immune responses in the majority of people studied. Antibodies against the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, which the virus uses to get inside cells, were found in 98% of participants one month after symptom onset.

“As seen in previous studies, the number of antibodies ranged widely between individuals.

“But, promisingly, their levels remained fairly stable over time, declining only modestly at 6 to 8 months after infection … virus-specific B cells increased over time.

“People had more memory B cells six months after symptom onset than at one month afterward… levels of T cells for the virus also remained high after infection.

“Six months after symptom onset, 92% of participants had CD4+ T cells that recognized the virus… 95% of the people had at least 3 out of 5 immune-system components that could recognize SARS-CoV-2 up to 8 months after infection.”

40) SARS-CoV-2 Natural Antibody Response Persists for at Least 12 Months in a Nationwide Study From the Faroe Islands, Petersen, 2021“The seropositive rate in the convalescent individuals was above 95% at all sampling time points for both assays and remained stable over time; that is, almost all convalescent individuals developed antibodies …

“results show that SARS-CoV-2 antibodies persisted at least 12 months after symptom onset and maybe even longer, indicating that COVID-19-convalescent individuals may be protected from reinfection.”

41) SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell memory is sustained in COVID-19 convalescent patients for 10 months with successful development of stem cell-like memory T cells, Jung, 2021“ex vivo assays to evaluate SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in COVID-19 convalescent patients up to 317 days post-symptom onset (DPSO), and find that memory T cell responses are maintained during the study period regardless of the severity of COVID-19.

“In particular, we observe sustained polyfunctionality and proliferation capacity of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells. Among SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells detected by activation-induced markers, the proportion of stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells is increased, peaking at approximately 120 DPSO.”

42) Immune Memory in Mild COVID-19 Patients and Unexposed Donors Reveals Persistent T Cell Responses After SARS-CoV-2 Infection, Ansari, 2021“Analyzed 42 unexposed healthy donors and 28 mild COVID-19 subjects up to 5 months from the recovery for SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory.

“Using HLA class II predicted peptide mega pools, we identified SARS-CoV-2 cross-reactive CD4+ T cells in around 66% of the unexposed individuals. Moreover, we found detectable immune memory in mild COVID-19 patients several months after recovery in the crucial arms of protective adaptive immunity; CD4+ T cells and B cells, with a minimal contribution from CD8+ T cells.

“Interestingly, the persistent immune memory in COVID-19 patients is predominantly targeted towards the Spike glycoprotein of the SARS-CoV-2. This study provides the evidence of both high magnitude pre-existing and persistent immune memory in Indian population.”

43) COVID-19 natural immunity, WHO, 2021“Current evidence points to most individuals developing strong protective immune responses following natural infection with SARSCoV-2.

“Within 4 weeks following infection, 90-99% of individuals infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus develop detectable neutralizing antibodies.

“The strength and duration of the immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 are not completely understood and currently available data suggests that it varies by age and the severity of symptoms.

“Available scientific data suggests that in most people immune responses remain robust and protective against reinfection for at least 6-8 months after infection (the longest follow up with strong scientific evidence is currently approximately 8 months).”

44) Antibody Evolution after SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination, Cho, 2021“We conclude that memory antibodies selected over time by natural infection have greater potency and breadth than antibodies elicited by vaccination …

“boosting vaccinated individuals with currently available mRNA vaccines would produce a quantitative increase in plasma neutralizing activity but not the qualitative advantage against variants obtained by vaccinating convalescent individuals.”

45) Humoral Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland, Gudbjartsson, 2020“Measured antibodies in serum samples from 30,576 persons in Iceland … of the 1797 persons who had recovered from SARS-CoV-2 infection, 1107 of the 1215 who were tested (91.1%) were seropositive…

“results indicate risk of death from infection was 0.3% and that antiviral antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 did not decline within 4 months after diagnosis (para).”

46)  Immunological memory to SARS-CoV-2 assessed for up to 8 months after infection, Dan, 2021“Analyzed multiple compartments of circulating immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 in 254 samples from 188 COVID-19 cases, including 43 samples at ≥ 6 months post-infection … IgG to the Spike protein was relatively stable over 6+ months.

“Spike-specific memory B cells were more abundant at 6 months than at 1 month post symptom onset.”

47) The prevalence of adaptive immunity to COVID-19 and reinfection after recovery – a comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of 12 011 447 individuals, Chivese, 2021“Fifty-four studies, from 18 countries, with a total of 12 011 447 individuals, followed up to 8 months after recovery, were included.

“At 6-8 months after recovery, the prevalence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 specific immunological memory remained high; IgG – 90.4% … pooled prevalence of reinfection was 0.2% (95%CI 0.0 – 0.7, I2 = 98.8, 9 studies). Individuals who recovered from COVID-19 had an 81% reduction in odds of a reinfection (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.1 – 0.3, I2 = 90.5%, 5 studies).”

48) Reinfection Rates among Patients who Previously Tested Positive for COVID-19: a Retrospective Cohort Study, Sheehan, 2021“Retrospective cohort study of one multi-hospital health system included 150,325 patients tested for COVID-19 infection … prior infection in patients with COVID-19 was highly protective against reinfection and symptomatic disease.

“This protection increased over time, suggesting that viral shedding or ongoing immune response may persist beyond 90 days and may not represent true reinfection.”

49) Assessment of SARS-CoV-2 Reinfection 1 Year After Primary Infection in a Population in Lombardy, Italy, Vitale, 2020“The study results suggest that reinfections are rare events and patients who have recovered from COVID-19 have a lower risk of reinfection.

“Natural immunity to SARS-CoV-2 appears to confer a protective effect for at least a year, which is similar to the protection reported in recent vaccine studies.”

50) Prior SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with protection against symptomatic reinfection, Hanrath, 2021“We observed no symptomatic reinfections in a cohort of healthcare workers … this apparent immunity to re-infection was maintained for at least 6 months …

“test positivity rates were 0% (0/128 [95% CI: 0–2.9]) in those with previous infection compared to 13.7% (290/2115 [95% CI: 12.3–15.2]) in those without (P<0.0001 χ2 test).”

51) mRNA vaccine-induced T cells respond identically to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern but differ in longevity and homing properties depending on prior infection status, Neidleman, 2021“In infection-naïve individuals, the second dose boosted the quantity and altered the phenotypic properties of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells, while in convalescents the second dose changed neither.

“Spike-specific T cells from convalescent vaccinees differed strikingly from those of infection-naïve vaccinees, with phenotypic features suggesting superior long-term persistence and ability to home to the respiratory tract including the nasopharynx.”

52) Targets of T Cell Responses to SARS-CoV-2 Coronavirus in Humans with COVID-19 Disease and Unexposed Individuals, Grifoni, 2020“Using HLA class I and II predicted peptide ‘megapools,’ circulating SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were identified in ∼70% and 100% of COVID-19 convalescent patients, respectively. CD4+ T cell responses to spike, the main target of most vaccine efforts, were robust and correlated with the magnitude of the anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG and IgA titers.

“The M, spike, and N proteins each accounted for 11%–27% of the total CD4+ response, with additional responses commonly targeting nsp3, nsp4, ORF3a, and ORF8, among others. For CD8+ T cells, spike and M were recognized, with at least eight SARS-CoV-2 ORFs targeted.”

53) NIH Director’s Blog: Immune T Cells May Offer Lasting Protection Against COVID-19, Collins, 2021“Much of the study on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, has focused on the production of antibodies.

“But, in fact, immune cells known as memory T cells also play an important role in the ability of our immune systems to protect us against many viral infections, including — it now appears — COVID-19.An intriguing new study of these memory T cells suggests they might protect some people newly infected with SARS-CoV-2 by remembering past encounters with other human coronaviruses.

“This might potentially explain why some people seem to fend off the virus and may be less susceptible to becoming severely ill with COVID-19.”

54) Ultrapotent antibodies against diverse and highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 variants, Wang, 2021“Our study demonstrates that convalescent subjects previously infected with ancestral variant SARS-CoV-2 produce antibodies that cross-neutralize emerging VOCs with high potency … potent against 23 variants, including variants of concern.”
55) Why COVID-19 Vaccines Should Not Be Required for All Americans, Makary, 2021“Requiring the vaccine in people who are already immune with natural immunity has no scientific support. While vaccinating those people may be beneficial — and it’s a reasonable hypothesis that vaccination may bolster the longevity of their immunity — to argue dogmatically that they must get vaccinated has zero clinical outcome data to back it.

“As a matter of fact, we have data to the contrary: A Cleveland Clinic study found that vaccinating people with natural immunity did not add to their level of protection.”

56) Protracted yet coordinated differentiation of long-lived SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells during COVID-19 convalescence, Ma, 2021“Screened 21 well-characterized, longitudinally-sampled convalescent donors that recovered from mild COVID-19 … following a typical case of mild COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2-specific CD8+ T cells not only persist but continuously differentiate in a coordinated fashion well into convalescence, into a state characteristic of long-lived, self-renewing memory.”
57) Decrease in Measles Virus-Specific CD4 T Cell Memory in Vaccinated Subjects, Naniche, 2004“Characterized the profiles of measles vaccine (MV) vaccine-induced antigen-specific T cells over time since vaccination.

“In a cross-sectional study of healthy subjects with a history of MV vaccination, we found that MV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells could be detected up to 34 years after vaccination.

“The levels of MV-specific CD8 T cells and MV-specific IgG remained stable, whereas the level of MV-specific CD4 T cells decreased significantly in subjects who had been vaccinated >21 years earlier.”

58) Remembrance of Things Past: Long-Term B Cell Memory After Infection and Vaccination, Palm, 2019“The success of vaccines is dependent on the generation and maintenance of immunological memory. The immune system can remember previously encountered pathogens, and memory B and T cells are critical in secondary responses to infection.

“Studies in mice have helped to understand how different memory B cell populations are generated following antigen exposure and how affinity for the antigen is determinant to B cell fate …

“upon re-exposure to an antigen the memory recall response will be faster, stronger, and more specific than a naïve response.

“Protective memory depends first on circulating antibodies secreted by LLPCs. When these are not sufficient for immediate pathogen neutralization and elimination, memory B cells are recalled.”

59) SARS-CoV-2 specific memory B-cells from individuals with diverse disease severities recognize SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, Lyski, 2021“Examined the magnitude, breadth and durability of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies in two distinct B-cell compartments: long-lived plasma cell-derived antibodies in the plasma, and peripheral memory B-cells along with their associated antibody profiles elicited after in vitro stimulation.

“We found that magnitude varied amongst individuals, but was the highest in hospitalized subjects. Variants of concern (VoC) -RBD-reactive antibodies were found in the plasma of 72% of samples in this investigation, and VoC-RBD-reactive memory B-cells were found in all but 1 subject at a single time-point.

“This finding, that VoC-RBD-reactive MBCs are present in the peripheral blood of all subjects including those that experienced asymptomatic or mild disease, provides a reason for optimism regarding the capacity of vaccination, prior infection, and/or both, to limit disease severity and transmission of variants of concern as they continue to arise and circulate.”

60) Exposure to SARS-CoV-2 generates T-cell memory in the absence of a detectable viral infection, Wang, 2021“T-cell immunity is important for recovery from COVID-19 and provides heightened immunity for re-infection. However, little is known about the SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity in virus-exposed individuals …

“report virus-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell memory in recovered COVID-19 patients and close contacts … close contacts are able to gain T-cell immunity against SARS-CoV-2 despite lacking a detectable infection.”

61) CD8+ T-Cell Responses in COVID-19 Convalescent Individuals Target Conserved Epitopes From Multiple Prominent SARS-CoV-2 Circulating Variants, Redd, 2021and Lee, 2021“The CD4 and CD8 responses generated after natural infection are equally robust, showing activity against multiple ‘epitopes’ (little segments) of the spike protein of the virus.

“For instance, CD8 cells responds to 52 epitopes and CD4 cells respond to 57 epitopes across the spike protein, so that a few mutations in the variants cannot knock out such a robust and in-breadth T cell response …

“only 1 mutation found in Beta variant-spike overlapped with a previously identified epitope (1/52), suggesting that virtually all anti-SARS-CoV-2 CD8+ T-cell responses should recognize these newly described variants.”

62) Exposure to common cold coronaviruses can teach the immune system to recognize SARS-CoV-2,La Jolla, Crotty and Sette, 2020“Exposure to common cold coronaviruses can teach the immune system to recognize SARS-CoV-2”
63) Selective and cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes in unexposed humans, Mateus, 2020“Found that the pre-existing reactivity against SARS-CoV-2 comes from memory T cells and that cross-reactive T cells can specifically recognize a SARS-CoV-2 epitope as well as the homologous epitope from a common cold coronavirus.

“These findings underline the importance of determining the impacts of pre-existing immune memory in COVID-19 disease severity.”

64) Longitudinal observation of antibody responses for 14 months after SARS-CoV-2 infectionDehgani-Mobaraki, 2021“Better understanding of antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 after natural infection might provide valuable insights into the future implementation of vaccination policies.

“Longitudinal analysis of IgG antibody titers was carried out in 32 recovered COVID-19 patients based in the Umbria region of Italy for 14 months after Mild and Moderately-Severe infection …

“study findings are consistent with recent studies reporting antibody persistency suggesting that induced SARS-CoV-2 immunity through natural infection, might be very efficacious against re-infection (>90%) and could persist for more than six months.

“Our study followed up patients up to 14 months demonstrating the presence of anti-S-RBD IgG in 96.8% of recovered COVID-19 subjects.”

65) Humoral and circulating follicular helper T cell responses in recovered patients with COVID-19, Juno, 2020“Characterized humoral and circulating follicular helper T cell (cTFH) immunity against spike in recovered patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).

“We found that S-specific antibodies, memory B cells and cTFH are consistently elicited after SARS-CoV-2 infection, demarking robust humoral immunity and positively associated with plasma neutralizing activity.”

66) Convergent antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in convalescent individuals, Robbiani, 2020“149 COVID-19-convalescent individuals…antibody sequencing revealed the expansion of clones of RBD-specific memory B cells that expressed closely related antibodies in different individuals.

“Despite low plasma titres, antibodies to three distinct epitopes on the RBD neutralized the virus with half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values) as low as 2 ng ml−1.”

67) Rapid generation of durable B cell memory to SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid proteins in COVID-19 and convalescence, Hartley, 2020“COVID-19 patients rapidly generate B cell memory to both the spike and nucleocapsid antigens following SARS-CoV-2 infection … RBD- and NCP-specific IgG and Bmem cells were detected in all 25 patients with a history of COVID-19.”
68) Had COVID? You’ll probably make antibodies for a lifetime, Callaway, 2021“People who recover from mild COVID-19 have bone-marrow cells that can churn out antibodies for decades … the study provides evidence that immunity triggered by SARS-CoV-2 infection will be extraordinarily long-lasting.”
69) A majority of uninfected adults show preexisting antibody reactivity against SARS-CoV-2, Majdoubi, 2021In greater Vancouver Canada, “using a highly sensitive multiplex assay and positive/negative thresholds established in infants in whom maternal antibodies have waned, we determined that more than 90% of uninfected adults showed antibody reactivity against the spike protein, receptor-binding domain (RBD), N-terminal domain (NTD), or the nucleocapsid (N) protein from SARS-CoV-2.”
70) SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells in healthy donors and patients with COVID-19, Braun, 2020“The results indicate that spike-protein cross-reactive T cells are present, which were probably generated during previous encounters with endemic coronaviruses.”
71) Naturally enhanced neutralizing breadth against SARS-CoV-2 one year after infection, Wang, 2021“A cohort of 63 individuals who have recovered from COVID-19 assessed at 1.3, 6.2 and 12 months after SARS-CoV-2 infection … the data suggest that immunity in convalescent individuals will be very long lasting.”
72) One Year after Mild COVID-19: The Majority of Patients Maintain Specific Immunity, But One in Four Still Suffer from Long-Term Symptoms, Rank, 2021“Long-lasting immunological memory against SARS-CoV-2 after mild COVID-19.”
73) IDSA, 2021“Immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 following natural infection can persist for at least 11 months …

“natural infection (as determined by a prior positive antibody or PCR-test result) can confer protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection.”

74) Assessment of protection against reinfection with SARS-CoV-2 among 4 million PCR-tested individuals in Denmark in 2020: a population-level observational study, Holm Hansen, 2021Denmark, “during the first surge (ie, before June, 2020), 533 381 people were tested, of whom 11 727 (2·20%) were PCR positive, and 525 339 were eligible for follow-up in the second surge, of whom 11 068 (2·11%) had tested positive during the first surge.

“Among eligible PCR-positive individuals from the first surge of the epidemic, 72 (0·65% [95% CI 0·51–0·82]) tested positive again during the second surge compared with 16 819 (3·27% [3·22–3·32]) of 514 271 who tested negative during the first surge (adjusted RR 0·195 [95% CI 0·155–0·246]).”

75) Antigen-Specific Adaptive Immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in Acute COVID-19 and Associations with Age and Disease Severity, Moderbacher, 2020“Adaptive immune responses limit COVID-19 disease severity…multiple coordinated arms of adaptive immunity control better than partial responses …

“completed a combined examination of all three branches of adaptive immunity at the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in acute and convalescent subjects. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were each associated with milder disease.

“Coordinated SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immune responses were associated with milder disease, suggesting roles for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in protective immunity in COVID-19.”

76) Detection of SARS-CoV-2-Specific Humoral and Cellular Immunity in COVID-19 Convalescent Individuals, Ni, 2020“Collected blood from COVID-19 patients who have recently become virus-free, and therefore were discharged, and detected SARS-CoV-2-specific humoral and cellular immunity in eight newly discharged patients.

“Follow-up analysis on another cohort of six patients 2 weeks post discharge also revealed high titers of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies.

“In all 14 patients tested, 13 displayed serum-neutralizing activities in a pseudotype entry assay. Notably, there was a strong correlation between neutralization antibody titers and the numbers of virus-specific T cells.”

77) Robust SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immunity is maintained at 6 months following primary infection, Zuo, 2020“Analysed the magnitude and phenotype of the SARS-CoV-2 cellular immune response in 100 donors at six months following primary infection and related this to the profile of antibody level against spike, nucleoprotein and RBD over the previous six months.

“T-cell immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 were present by ELISPOT and/or ICS analysis in all donors and are characterised by predominant CD4+ T cell responses with strong IL-2 cytokine expression …

“functional SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses are retained at six months following infection.”

78) Negligible impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants on CD4+ and CD8+ T cell reactivity in COVID-19 exposed donors and vaccinees, Tarke, 2021“Performed a comprehensive analysis of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses from COVID-19 convalescent subjects recognizing the ancestral strain, compared to variant lineages B.1.1.7, B.1.351, P.1, and CAL.20C as well as recipients of the Moderna (mRNA-1273) or Pfizer/BioNTech (BNT162b2) COVID-19 vaccines …

“the sequences of the vast majority of SARS-CoV-2 T cell epitopes are not affected by the mutations found in the variants analyzed.

“Overall, the results demonstrate that CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in convalescent COVID-19 subjects or COVID-19 mRNA vaccinees are not substantially affected by mutations.”

79) A 1 to 1000 SARS-CoV-2 reinfection proportion in members of a large healthcare provider in Israel: a preliminary report, Perez, 2021Israel, “out of 149,735 individuals with a documented positive PCR test between March 2020 and January 2021, 154 had two positive PCR tests at least 100 days apart, reflecting a reinfection proportion of 1 per 1000.”
80) Persistence and decay of human antibody responses to the receptor binding domain of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in COVID-19 patients, Iyer, 2020“Measured plasma and/or serum antibody responses to the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) protein of SARS-CoV-2 in 343 North American patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 (of which 93% required hospitalization) up to 122 days after symptom onset and compared them to responses in 1548 individuals whose blood samples were obtained prior to the pandemic …

“IgG antibodies persisted at detectable levels in patients beyond 90 days after symptom onset, and seroreversion was only observed in a small percentage of individuals.

“The concentration of these anti-RBD IgG antibodies was also highly correlated with pseudovirus NAb titers, which also demonstrated minimal decay. The observation that IgG and neutralizing antibody responses persist is encouraging, and suggests the development of robust systemic immune memory in individuals with severe infection.”

81) A population-based analysis of the longevity of SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity in the United States, Alfego, 2021“To track population-based SARS-CoV-2 antibody seropositivity duration across the United States using observational data from a national clinical laboratory registry of patients tested by nucleic acid amplification (NAAT) and serologic assays …

“specimens from 39,086 individuals with confirmed positive COVID-19 … both S and N SARS-CoV-2 antibody results offer an encouraging view of how long humans may have protective antibodies against COVID-19, with curve smoothing showing population seropositivity reaching 90% within three weeks, regardless of whether the assay detects N or S-antibodies.

“Most importantly, this level of seropositivity was sustained with little decay through ten months after initial positive PCR.”

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